De islamistiska extremister som har tolkat Koranen så att de utövar Jihad mot t.ex. USA genom att terrorisera och döda i "heligt krig", är de islamistiska fundamentalister eller liberalister? Majoriteten dvs. (den skara som dominerar media)
Det naturliga skulle vara att de är liberalister som tolkar Koranen på deras sätt, men är inte den vanliga benämmelsen att de är fundamentalister? Detta hänger ju inte riktigt ihop; de kan ju inte utöva jihad Mot någon som inte attackerar, enligt Koranen? Om de är fundamentalister, är de ju mer eller mindre bokstavstroende?
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Och kan du ärligt påstå att USA inte har attackerat? Jag vet inte vad du har missat, men vad jag har sett har de gjort det med dunder och brak. Dessutom kan läran om jihad tolkas som att det är berättigat så fort tron är kränkt. Det finns många olika utrymmen för tolkningar, men terroristerna går ändå efter boken och lämnar den inte, det är inte ett liberalt synsätt.
Du har rätt när du säger att USA har attackerat. Dock inte på grund av muslimernas tro:
"Gud förbjuder er bara från att främja dem som kämpar emot er på grund av er tro, vräker er från era hem på grund av er tro, och slår sig samman med andra för att förvisa er på grund av er tro. Ni ska inte gynna dem. De som främjar dem är överträdare." „ — Koranens budskap, Al-Mumtahanah 60:9
Koranen säger Dessutom att Jihad bara får utövas då islam är en samlad religion, och det kan man ju knappast säga att den är idag, med de olika synsätten.
Då vill jag visst påstå att de går emot boken. Alltså kan de omöjligt vara ett fundamentalistiskt synsätt?
Jihad är krig för att sprida/etablera religionen. När det finns en Kalif är det endast han som kan utlysa jihad. Nu existerar dock ej ett kalifat och det står därför varje muslim fritt att strida för att etablera Kalifatet.
Enligt den etablerade islamska juridiska skolan shafi fiqh:
The Reliance of the Traveller - A Classical Manual of Islamic Sacred Law (Ahmad ibn Naqib al Misri)
9.9.0: JIHAD Jihad means to war against non-Muslims, and is derived from the word mujahada signifying warfare to establish the religion, and it is the lesser jihad. The scriptural basis for jihad, prior to scholarly consensus (7.7) is found in such Koranic verses as: 1. (Offensive) fighting is obligatory for you (Koran 2.216); 2. And fight against the unbelievers all together as they themselves fight against you all together . (Koran 9.36); and such Prophetic quotations (Ahadiths) as the one related by Bukhari and Muslim that the Prophet - may Allah venerate him and give him peace - said: I have been commanded to fight people until they bear witness that there is no god except Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and perform the prayer, and pay the obligatory charity (zakat). If they say it, they have saved their blood and possessions from me, except for the rights of Islam over them. And their final reckoning is with Allah; and the Prophetic quotation (Ahadith) reported by Muslim: To go forth in the morning or evening to fight in the path of Allah is better than the whole world and everything in it.'' Details concerning jihad are found in the accounts of the military encounters of the Prophet - may Allah venerate him and give him peace - including his own martial raids and those on which he dispatched others. The former consist of the ones he personally attended, which numbered either twenty-seven or twenty-nine. The Prophet - may Allah venerate him and give him peace - fought in eight of encounters, and killed only one person, namely Ubayy ibn Khalaf, with his noble hand at the battle of Uhud.
9.9.1 The Obligatory character of Jihad Jihad is a Communal obligation (8.3.2). When enough people engage in jihad to accomplish it successfully, it is no longer obligatory upon others the evidence for which is the Prophet's saying - may Allah venerate him and give him peace - "He who provides the equipment for a soldier in jihad has himself performed jihad," and Allah, the Most High said: Believers who stay behind, having no injury, are not equal to those who fight in the way of Allah with their wealth and their souls. Allah has preferred those who fight with their wealth and their souls a degree above those who stay behind (because of sickness). Yet to each, Allah has promised the most excellent (Paradise). And Allah has preferred those who fought over those who stayed behind with a great wage. (Koran 4.95) When able-bodied men are called upon to engage in jihad - regardless whether or not it actually occurs - do not participate each and everyone who is aware that it is obligatory to take part in the jihad is guilt of sin After the Prophets migration to Medina jihad became a Communal obligation. As for subsequent times, there are two possible states in respect to non-Muslims. The first is when they are in their own countries, in which case jihad (9.9.8) is a Communal obligation , and this is what our author is speaking of when he says, "Jihad is a Communal obligation ," meaning upon the Muslims each year. The second state is when non-Muslims invade a Muslim country or near to one, in which case jihad is personally obligatory (8.3.2) upon the inhabitants of that country, who must repel the non-Muslims with whatever they can).
9.9.2 When jihad is a personal obligation Jihad is obligatory upon all those present in the battle lines and it is a major sin to flee from a battle. However, if a person does not take part on account of illness or the death of one's mount when unable to fight on foot, or because one no longer has a weapon, then one may leave. One may also leave if the opposing non-Muslim army is more than twice the size of the Muslim force. 9.9.3 Surrender when overrun Jihad is also obligatory upon every able person, men, women, old and young when the enemy has surrounded Muslims territory, even if the land consists of ruins, wilderness, or mountains. This is because non-Muslim forces entering Muslim lands is a weighty matter that cannot be ignored, and must be met with effort and struggle to repel them by every possible means if they have sufficient provisions and weaponry to defend themselves. If this is not the case and the enemy has already overcome and a Muslim encounters a non-Muslim and fears for his life if he is captured then he must defend himself. However, if he is uncertain whether or not he will be killed or just taken captive he has the option to either fight or surrender. A woman also has the choice either to fight or to surrender as long as she is certain that she will not be subject to an indecent act if captured. If she is uncertain whether or not she will be safe then she is obligated to fight and surrender is not permissible.
9.9.4 Those obligated to fight in Jihad Those called upon to fight are every able bodied man who has reached puberty and is sane.
9.9.5 Those not permitted to fight The following may not fight in jihad: 1. Someone in debt, unless his creditor gives him leave; 2. or someone with at least one Muslim parent, until they give their permission; unless the Muslims are surrounded by the enemy, in which case it is permissible for them to fight without permission.
9.9.6 Caliph's permission It is offensive to conduct a military expedition against hostile non-Muslims without the caliph's permission, although if there is no caliph (9.25), no permission is required.
9.9.7 Non-Muslim allies Muslims may not seek help from non-Muslims allies unless the Muslims are considerably outnumbered and the allies have goodwill towards the Muslims.
9.9.8 Objectives of Jihad The caliph (9.25) makes war upon Jews, Christians (Nazarenes), and Zoroastrians provided he has first invited them to enter Islam in faith and practice, and if they will not, then invited them to enter the social order of Islam by paying the non-Muslim poll tax (jizya, def: 9.11.4). Their circumstances remain as such until they either become covert to Islam or continue paying the non-Muslim poll-tax. Allah, the Most High says: Fight those who neither believe in Allah nor the Last Day, who do not forbid what Allah and His Messenger have forbidden, and do not embrace the religion of the truth, being among those who have been given the Book, until they pay tribute out of hand and have been humiliated. (Koran 9.29), After the final coming of Prophet Jesus, nothing but Islam will be accepted from them, that is because the taking of the poll tax is only effective until Jesus' descent - peace be upon him, and this has been Divinely revealed in the Law of Prophet Muhammad - may Allah venerate him and give him peace. The final coming of Jesus does not constitute a separate Divinely revealed law, he will rule with the law of Prophet Muhammad may Allah venerate him and give him peace - because he said: Authority among the Children of Israel was exercised by prophets. When a prophet died, he was succeeded by another prophet. I will not be succeeded by a prophet, but there will be caliphs after me, a large number of them. He as asked, "I am the last, there will be no prophet after me," this does not contradict the final coming of Jesus peace be upon him - since he will not rule according to the Evangel, but as a follower of our Prophet - may Allah venerate him and give him peace.
9.9.9 Regarding others: The caliph fights all other peoples until they become Muslim because they are not a people with a Book, nor honored as such, and are not permitted to settle with paying the poll tax (jizya). However, according to the Hanafi school, peoples of all other religions, even idol worshippers, are permitted to live under the protection of the Islamic state if they either become Muslim or agree to pay the poll tax, the sole exceptions to which are apostates from Islam and idol worshippers who are Arabs, neither of whom has any choice but becoming Muslim (al-Hidaya sharh Bidaya al-mubtadi' (y-21), 6.48-49) ).
9.9.12 Whosoever converts to Islam before being captured may not be killed or have his property confiscated, or his wife or young children taken captive.
Exempel från Koranen
2:193. And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and worshipping of others along with Allah) and (all and every kind of) worship is for Allah (Alone). But if they cease (disbelief), let there be no transgression except against the wrong-doers
2:216 Jihad is ordained for you (Muslims) though you dislike it, and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you like a thing which is bad for you. Allah knows but you do not know.
4:76. Those who believe, fight in the Cause of Allah, and those who disbelieve, fight in the cause of satan. So fight you against the friends of Satan; Ever feeble indeed is the plot of Satan.
8:39. And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and polytheism: i.e. worshipping others besides Allah) and the religion (worship) will all be for Allah Alone [in the whole of the world]. But if they cease (worshipping others besides Allah), then certainly, Allah is All-Seer of what they do.
8:59. And let not those who disbelieve think that they can outstrip (escape from the punishment). Verily, they will never be able to save themselves
8:60. And make ready against them all you can of power, including steeds of war to threaten the enemy of Allah and your enemy, and others besides whom, you may not know but whom Allah does know. And whatever you shall spend in the Cause of Allah shall be repaid unto you, and you shall not be treated unjustly.
8:67. It is not for a Prophet that he should have prisoners of war (and free them with ransom) until he had made a great slaughter (among his enemies) in the land. You desire the good of this world (i.e. the money of ransom for freeing the captives), but Allah desires (for you) the Hereafter. And Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise.
8:73. And those who disbelieve are allies to one another, (and) if you (Muslims of the whole world collectively) do not do so (i.e. become allies, as one united block with one Khalifah - chief Muslim ruler for the whole Muslim world to make victorious Allah's Religion of Islamic Monotheism over the whole world), there will be Fitnah (wars, battles, polytheism, etc.) and oppression on earth, and a great mischief and corruption (appearance of polytheism).
9:5 Then when the Sacred Months (the Ist, 7th, 11th, and 12th months of the Islamic calendar) have passed, then kill the polytheists wherever you find them, and capture them and besiege them, and prepare for them each and every ambush. But if they repent and perform the prayer, and give Zakah, then leave their way free. Verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
9:14. Fight against them so that Allah will punish them by your hands and disgrace them and give you victory over them and heal the breasts of a believing people,
9:29. Fight against those who (1) believe not in Allah, (2) nor in the Last Day, (3) nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger (4) and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth (i.e. Islam) among the People of the Scripture, until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued.
9:123. O you who believe! Fight those of the disbelievers who are close to you, and let them find harshness in you, and know that Allah is with those who are the pious.
Exempel från Hadith
Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, "The person who participates in (Holy battles) in Allah's cause and nothing compels him to do so except belief in Allah and His Apostles, will be recompensed by Allah either with a reward, or booty (if he survives) or will be admitted to Paradise (if he is killed in the battle as a martyr). Had I not found it difficult for my followers, then I would not remain behind any ariya going for Jihad and I would have loved to be martyred in Allah's cause and then made alive, and then martyred and then made alive, and then again martyred in His cause." Sahih Bukhari Vol 1 Book 2 Number 35